Caldana of Gavorrano is situated on the Tuscan Marremane hills , an area
particularly dedicated to the Olive cultivation of value .The value of
the extravirgin olive-oil is thanks to the characteristics of the
climate and of the land, that is at about 200 meters from sea-level.
Types of olive trees:
Leccino, Moraiolo, Maurino and Frantoio
manual harvesting of the Olives from the olive-trees
Fresh ,fruity and decisive
intense,fruity, that remembers the olive just crushed
the oextravirgin olive oil just crushed appears of an intense brilliant
from the half of october to the end of november
Oil Processing System:
the olives are crushed within 12 hours from the harvesting .The crushing
is made in a traditional way .The crushing is a cold squeezing in order
to intensify the typical organolectic and aromatic properties
8 hectares of olive-grove in Caldana of Gavorrano in the Tuscan Maremma
The extravirgin olive oil just crushed appears of a deep emerald green
colour and has a intense and fruity taste, these qualities are obtained
thanks to the particular conditions of the climate and to the sorts of
the olive-trees and to the traditional way of cultivation , harvesting
The typical particular characteristics of the extravirgin olive oil of
Caldana , of the firm Il Poggetto di Mezzo are obtained thanks to the
cold squeezing , to the manual harvesting of the olives at the right
point of ripening .The harvesting is made in a very short-time , that
traditionally occured in the period from the half of october to the end
The are many different ways to process the Olives to make the
extravirgin olive-oil , but generally it follows these steps:
-ripening of the fruit
-the slop oil and the fitering
The ripening of the drupa ( the botanical term for this type of olive )
is called invaiatura that is the change of colour from green to black :
this change of colour indicates the ripening of the olives.
The composition of the ripened olive is that of 50 % water, 25 % oily
fats and the rest cellulose 6 %,carbohydrates 5 % , proteins 3% and
olive husk 11%.
The most delicate moment is the one of the superficial invaiatura ,
because in that moment the right balance between acidity and fat part is
The harvesting is another essential operation in order to have a perfect
extravirgin olive oil .The fallen olives on the ground must absolutely
not be harvested. Only the fruit from the branches must be harvested .
The brucatura is a manual method that consists in choosing singly each
olive on the branch in order to be able to value the right point of
ripening of the olives. The fault of this operation is the slowness ,
but it is absolutely necessary in impervious areas and more over it
makes possible to reach the best result. A good brucatore ( a man that
harvests the olives from the branches ) could arrive to harvest about
150 kg of olives in a day.
Another type of harvesting is hand-picking the olives from the tree with
the use of mechanical implements .This kind of hand-picking is called
pettinatura .The work of the picker is made with a mechanical implements
, that has the shape of a comb , that strip the most ripened olives .
Than there are the mechanical harvesting types .The mechanicl brushing
machines and the shakers for olives machines are the most used .it is
possible to harvest about 10 quintal ( 220,46 lb ) in a day for each
The freshly picked olives are immediately transported in their bins to
the machine to be squeezed within 24/48 hours .
In order to avoid the heating effect of the olives , that could causes a
noxious fermentation of the olives , these must be squeezed within 24/48
Kneading of the olives
The olives with the kneading becomes extravirgin olive oil .
The pressing of the olives squeezed the olives and their stones in a
single olive paste from wich the extravirgin olive oil will be extracted
. The pressing types could be the classic one with the mole stones or
mechanical continuous cycle one . The last one is called continuous
The essential process to obtain an optimum olive oil is the kneading of
the olives .This process consists in the mixing the olive paste obtained
from the pressing of the olives at a controlled temperature , in order
to obtain a breaking of the water and oil emulsion .This is to make
possible that the oil drops go together in bigger olive drops in order
to help the extraction of olive oil .
Olive Oil Extraction
The olive oil extraction is the last stage of the production process.
The main methods of olive oil extraction are two :
- the traditional method is pressure or cold : The kneaded paste
of olives is spreaded on big filtering disks called fiscoli . A pressure
of about 4 atmosphere is applied in order to cause the extraction of a
liquid called “ olio-mosto “. The wastes of the olive-stone and of the
olives pulp remain on the fiscoli and form the sansa di olive ( olive
pomace ) . The olio-mosto go towards the centrifugal machine in order to
obtain the separation of the olive oil from the water .
- continuous cycle of the oil ( or machine-operated method ) :
the extraction is or for centrifuge ( the solid part is separated from
the liquid one using the different specific gravity of the olio-mosto
and of the sansa di olive ) or for percolation ( using the different
superficial tension between the oil and the olive vegetation water )
using warm water at 40-50 ° degrees centigrade , this water make the
pulp of the olives most fluid.
The decantation of the oil ( decantazione )is one of the last production
process , it is typical of the cold method , because in this kind of
process it is necessary waiting that all the particles in suspension
deposit themselves and the oil becomes limpid . Only after a complete
decantation the oil is pouring off .
The decantation usually is not necessary in the continuous cycle of the
oil because there are filters that keep the impurities that are in the
The conservation of the olive oil is one of the most important element
to obtain a good olive oil : also a very good product could be ruined by
a worst conservation . The olive oil must be stored and contained in
glass or stainless steel containers in a temperature controlled room
with a temperature of maximum 15 ° C .
A old polemic is if it is best an olive oil produced by the cold process
or by the machine –method .
It’ is possible say that the cold process request a particular attention
for the hygienically conditions : the machine-method is certainly most
fast and most hygienic , but if too much warm water is used it is
possible the risk to take away very important substances like the